Surface treatment is the processes carried out for the purposes such as increasing the life and strength of the part by improving the surface properties of the material, reducing the maintenance costs, and protecting it from wear and corrosion.
Surface treatment technology with cold plasma enables various modifications to occur on the surface without deteriorating the basic properties of the material. In the textile industry and especially in labeling, dyeing and pre-coating processes, plasma application provides many advantages such as nano-sized roughness, no chemical or thermal degradation.
The energy of particles in a low-temperature plasma is usually a few 10X electron volts. It is greater than the bond energy of the material. Therefore, the plasma discharge can completely break the chemical bond of the macromolecule to re-form it. A new bond is much lower than high-energy radioactive rays and involves only the surface of the material and does not affect the structure of the substrate. In a low-temperature plasma in a non-thermodynamic equilibrium state, electrons have higher energy, which can break the chemical bonds of molecules on the surface of the material, increase the chemical reactivity of the particles, and the temperature of neutral particles is close to room temperature. The advantage provides favorable conditions for surface modification of the heat-sensitive polymer. With low temperature plasma surface treatment, various physical and chemical changes occur on the surface of the material, or etching is roughened, or a dense cross-linked layer is formed, or an oxygen-containing polar group is added to ensure hydrophilicity and stickiness. Dyeability, biocompatibility and electrical properties are improved respectively. The surface of the material is processed under suitable process conditions, and the surface morphology of the material changes significantly. Various oxygen-containing groups are added to make the surface non-polar, hard, certain polarity, easy sticky and hydrophilic. An area is formed which is good for gluing, coating and printing. At present, the production of various films has generally adopted a plasma treatment method to solve the problem of surface affinity.