Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which different types of particles such as neutral particles, excited particles, ionized particles, electrons, photons, free radical particles coexist. The most general classification for plasmas is based on whether the temperatures of different types of particles are in thermal equilibrium.
Plasmas where all the particles in the plasma are at the same temperature are called 'Hot Plasmas (which are in thermal equilibrium). Plasmas whose electrons have very high energy and other particles are at low temperatures such as room temperature are called 'Cold Plasmas (not in thermal equilibrium)'. The most important difference between Hot Plasma and Cold Plasma is that the temperature rises to thousands of degrees as a result of energy transfer between electrons in Hot Plasma, while uncharged molecules and ions play a greater role in Cold Plasma. Cold Plasma is affected by various process parameters such as voltage, frequency, application time, exposure type, gas type, gas flow rate, and environmental conditions.
There are two different application methods of Cold Plasma Technology as direct and indirect. In Direct Cold Plasma applications, while the sample is in direct contact with the plasma; In Indirect Cold Plasma applications, a gap is left between the sample and the plasma and only reactive species are exposed.
Cold Plasma is produced by applying voltage to a gas or air placed between two electrodes. The applied voltage can be DC/AC, it can vary between 1kV and 100kV, and the frequency can vary between 1kHz and 100GHz when AC voltage is applied. It is also possible to produce Cold Plasma with different properties by changing the gas type, gas mixtures, gas flow rates.
Wound and burn treatment
Surface activation and processing processes
Inactivation of microorganisms
In agriculture, seed improvement and water enrichment